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In honor of PEN American’s 90th anniversary, check out a timeline of what was going on in the PEN world in the 1930s. Nazis were burning books, Lorca was under arrest, and Klaus Mann was fighting back:

The tyrant can forbid the publication of books he dislikes; he can even make it impossible, or at least utterly dangerous, for authors to write down anything opposed to the official ideology. Yet he cannot prevent men and women from thinking. The only effective way to avoid this is killing the intelligent men and women, for intellectuals are at least as disturbing for the dictator as the latter is disagreeable for the intellectuals.